Ophthalmoscopy – examination of the eye fundus

Ophthalmoscopy is an objective method for visualization of the eye fundus. It is a basic routine technique, crucial in diagnosing eye fundus diseases.  There are two types: indirect and direct.  Indirect ophthalmoscopyproduces an inverted, or reversed, image of the eye fundus. The following are necessary for indirect ophthalmoscopy: 1) a concave mirror, 2) a biconvex lens from +13D and +30) and source of light. The image is real, inverted and magnified. Indirect ophthalmoscopy provides a wider view on the eye fundus. It does not depend on the patient’s accommodation. It provides good results in myopia. A disadvantage is that magnification is not very big. Indirect binocular ophthalmoscopy is used for stereoscopic inspection of the eye. The field of view of the eye fundus is up to 60°. Direct ophthalmoscopy produces an upright, virtual and magnified image. The advantage of this type of ophthalmoscopy is the bigger magnification it offers but the field of observation is limited and does not provide a wide view of the eye fundus.
Stereoscopic ophthalmoscopy gives the opportunity to examine the relief of the eye fundus and to differentiate the levels of the viewed parts.