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Eyes and all vision functions (including coordination between eyes and the brain) develop mainly in the first 6 years of the child. At birth babies have vision which functions but its development has not finished yet. At one month they can focus on objects and react to light stimuli and after 4 months they start recognizing objects at a bigger distance. If baby’s eyes occasionally turn before the third month it is not dangerous because eye muscles are still learning to coordinate. Normally the ability to see at a close distance develops after six months of age. At 18 months children have about 50% of the eye sharpness of adults.
It is important to say that children’s eyes are extremely sensitive to light because they easily let light rays in and their pupils are wider and they have less pigmentation.
One in four pre-school children has eye disorders and parents are unaware. This data is of great importance for amblyopia screening in childhood. Amblyopia or the so called “lazy eye” can be detected by precise examination. All factors that prevent the perception of a clear image on the retina can lead to this condition. Such as: high levels of long-sightedness, difference in the dioptres of the two eyes (anisometropia), oblique astigmatism and mixed astigmatism, congenital child cataract or eyelid disorders and others.